GROWISOFS(1m)                                                    GROWISOFS(1m)


       growisofs - combined mkisofs frontend/DVD recording program.


       growisofs   [-dry-run]   [-dvd-compat]  [-overburn]  [-speed=1]  -[Z|M]
       /dev/dvd <mkisofs-options>


       growisofs was originally designed as a frontend to mkisofs  to  facili-
       tate  appending  of  data  to ISO9660 volumes residing on random-access
       media such as DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, plain files, hard  disk  partitions.  In
       the  course  of  development  general purpose DVD recording support was
       implemented, and as of now growisofs supports  not  only  random-access
       media,  but even mastering of multi-session DVD media such as DVD+R and
       DVD-R/-RW. In addition growisofs supports first-/single-session record-
       ing  of  arbitrary pre-mastered image (formatted as UDF, ISO9660 or any
       other file system, if formatted at all)  to  all  supported  DVD  media


       -Z /dev/dvd
              Burn  an  initial session to the selected device. A special form
              of this option is recognized to support burning of  pre-mastered
              images. See EXAMPLES section for further details.

       -M /dev/dvd
              Merge a new session to an existing one.

              Print version information and invoke mkisofs, also with -version

              Provide maximum  media  compatibility  with  DVD-ROM/-Video.  In
              write-once  context  (DVD+R and DVD-R) this results in unappend-
              able recording (closed disk). In DVD+RW context it instructs the
              logical unit to explicitly burn [otherwise optional] lead-out.

              At  dry-run  growisofs  performs  all  the  steps  till, but not
              including the first write  operation.  Most  notably  check  for
              "overburn" condition is performed, which implies that mkisofs is
              invoked and terminated prematurely.

              Normally  DVD  media  can  accommodate   up   to   approximately
              4.700.000.000  bytes (in marketing speech 4.7GB). In other words
              a DVD can contain about 4.377 GiB or 4482 MiB.  Growisofs  won’t
              start without this option, if "overburn" condition appears to be

              An option to control recording velocity.  Most  commonly  you’ll
              use  -speed=1  with  "no-name"  DVD-R[W] media, if default speed
              settings messes up the media. Keep in mind  that  N  essentially
              denotes  speed closest to N*1385KBps among those offered by unit
              for currently mounted media. The list can be  found  in  dvd+rw-
              mediainfo output.

              More options can be found in the manpage for mkisofs.

       There’re   several   undocumented   options   commonly   denoted   with
       -use-the-force-luke prefix. Some of them serve debugging purposes. Some
       require  certain  knowledge  about  recording process or even OS kernel
       internals and as being such can induce confusing behaviour. Some are to
       be  used in very specific situations better recognized by front-ends or
       automated scripts. Rationale behind leaving these options  undocumented
       is  that  those  few users who would actually need to use them directly
       can as well consult the source code  or  obtain  specific  instructions


       When  using growisofs you may not use the -o option for an output file.
       growisofs dumps the image directly to the media;

       You don’t have to specify the -C option to create a higher  level  ses-
       sion on a multi session disk, growisofs will construct one for you;

       Otherwise  everything  that  applies  to [multi-session] mastering with
       mkisofs applies to growisofs as well.  growisofs needs at least mkisofs
       version  1.14,  version  2.0  is  required for multi-session write-once


       Actual device names vary from one operating system to another.  We  use
       /dev/dvd  as a collective name or as symbolic link to the actual device
       if you wish. Under Linux it will most  likely  be  an  ide-scsi  device
       such as "/dev/scd0." Under NetBSD/OpenBSD it has to be a character SCSI
       CD-ROM device such as "/dev/rcd0c." Under Solaris it also has to  be  a
       character  SCSI/ATAPI  CD-ROM  device,  e.g.   "/dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2"  or
       "/vol/dev/aliases/cdrom0." And likewise in HP-UX and IRIX...

       To master and burn an ISO9660 volume with Joliet and Rock-Ridge  exten-
       sions on a DVD:

            growisofs -Z /dev/dvd -R -J /some/files

       To append more data to same DVD:

            growisofs -M /dev/dvd -R -J /more/files

       Make sure to use the same options for both inital burning and following

       To use growisofs to write a pre-mastered ISO-image to a DVD:

            growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/dvd=image.iso

       where image.iso represents an arbitrary object in the filesystem,  such
       as  file,  named pipe or device entry. Nothing is growing here and com-
       mand name is not intuitive in this context.


       If executed under sudo(8) growisofs refuses to start. This is done  for
       the following reason. Naturally growisofs has to access the data set to
       be recorded to DVD media, either indirectly by letting mkisofs generate
       ISO9660  layout on-the-fly or directly if a pre-mastered image is to be
       recorded. Being executed under sudo(8),  growisofs  effectively  grants
       sudoers  read  access  to any file in the file system. The situation is
       intensified by the fact that growisofs parses MKISOFS environment vari-
       able  in  order  to  determine  alternative  path to mkisofs executable
       image. This means that being executed under sudo(8),  growisofs  effec-
       tively  grants  sudoers  right  to execute program of their choice with
       elevated privileges. If you for any reason still find the above accept-
       able  and  are  willing to take the consequences, then consider running
       following wrapper script under sudo(8)  in  place  for  real  growisofs

            unset SUDO_COMMAND
            export MKISOFS=/path/to/trusted/mkisofs
            exec growisofs "$@"

       But  note that the recommended alternative to the above "workaround" is
       actually to install growisofs set-root-uid, in which case it will  drop
       privileges  prior  accessing data or executing mkisofs in order to pre-
       clude unauthorized access to the data.

       If the media already carries isofs and growisofs  is  invoked  with  -Z
       option non-interactively, e.g. through cron, it shall fail with "FATAL:
       /dev/dvd already carries isofs!" Note that only ISO9660 is  recognized,
       you can perfectly zap e.g. an UDF filesystem non-interactively.

       "Overburn"  protection  in  pre-mastered  image context works only with
       plain files and ISO9660 formatted volumes. E.g. [given  that  /dev/root
       is  an ext2 formatted file system larger than 4.7GB] /dev/dvd=/dev/root
       is bound to produce corrupted recording.

       Note that DVD+RW re-formatting procedure does not substitute for blank-
       ing.  If you want to nullify the media, e.g. for privacy reasons, do it
       explicitly with ’growisofs -Z /dev/dvd=/dev/zero’.

       Playback of re-writable DVD media, both DVD+RW  and  DVD-RW,  might  be
       limited  in  legacy  DVD-ROM/-Video units. In most cases this is due to
       lower reflectivity of such media.

       Even though growisofs supports it, playback of multi-session write-once
       DVD might be limited to the first session for two reasons:

       ·      not  all DVD-ROM players are capable of multi-border DVD-R play-
              back, even less are aware of DVD+R multi-sessioning, burner unit
              therefore  might  be  the  only  one in your vicinity capable of
              accessing files written at different occasions;

       ·      OS might fail to mount multi-session DVD for various reasons;

       The above is not applicable to DVD+RW, DVD-RW Restricted  Overwrite  or
       DVD-RAM, as volumes are grown within a single session.


       Most   up-to-date   information   on   dvd+rw-tools   is  available  at

       The manpage for mkisofs.


       Andy Polyakov <> stands for programming and on-line

       This  manpage  is  currently  maintained  by Huub Reuver <h_reuver@man->.


       growisofs is distributed under GNU GPL.

growisofs 5.20                   15 July 2004                    GROWISOFS(1m)

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